*June 2017*

# NUKE TOOL: LOOP NODES USING SETLOOP

SetLoop is a toolset for Nuke that can loop a set of nodes a specific amount of times (like a for each loop, an iterator or a solver).

It basically copies the nodes you place between Loop_Begin and Loop_End inside Loop_End (a group), and reconnects them.

But there are many more features to it which, combined, make this an actually functional image solver that can render fractals and reaction diffusion entirely inside Nuke.

Since it automates creating a lot (in most cases, hundredths) of nodes, there are also some nice automatic relinking options (for external nodes or references in TCL expressions).

There is the option to "upstream reference" in a way, this simply creates a knob on every node inside the loop with an integer counting the loop it's in.

This knob can then be referenced to by an expression to get unique values for every loop iteration.

All features explained:

- relink external inputs

if nodes in the loop are connected to nodes outside the loop, this will make sure they are relinked automatically by adding exra inputs to Loop_End to which the nodes connect

(this is enabled by default, as it does not change anything if no external inputs are present) - relink external expressions

for all expressions referencing nodes which are not part of the loop, this will make sure to add 'parent.' before every nodename and replace 'parent.' with 'root.' for every node not being looped - this way, they'll still be connected from inside the group

(this is disabled by default, as it could mess up expressions if user variables have the same name as nodes) - add loop count knob

the nodes inside the loop will get an index count knob ('loopcount' (int)) which can be used to create different values or random seeds for each loop iteration - the original nodes (the ones in the backdrop in the main graph) will also get this knob, with index 0

(this is disabled by default, as it interferes with all nodes in the loop) - offset

offset the loop count knob

(0 by default)

- only available when 'add loop count knob' is enabled - loops

amount of loops to create - method

'sequential' loops like an iterator, 'parallel' creates multiple instances of the same input and merges them together

when using 'parallel', make sure to add a random value to an expression or to use the 'add loop count knob' for visible results

('sequential' is the default, as this is a more commonly used loop) - set

bake/clear the loop - scroll

animate the loop level - invert

invert the direction of the scroll

- only available with method 'parallel' - blend

blends the loop levels when scroll is not a round number - spread

feather the loop levels

- only available with method 'parallel' and 'blend' enabled - stats

current stats - [tab] constants

room for user knobs that can be referenced to from inside the loop

(e.g.: 'constant_float') - constant_float

this does nothing - it can be referenced to using 'constant_float'

or removed, if you don't like it

#### Reaction Diffusion

Reaction Diffusion is very often referred to as a chemical process - it is, for instance, what happens in the skin of animals, in order to give them a specific pattern.

I created a very simple version of this in Nuke by substracting two different amounts of blur over the same image from each other.

Doing this about 150 times will result in some really cool patterns (and the loop level can also be animated using 'scroll' in Loop_End).

The iteration process is done using SetLoop, and the node graph looks like this:

Blur2.size has an expression that makes it three times the size of Blur1.size.

Using the 'loop count'-feature in Loop_End can give some interesting results, and external expression relinking can, for instance, be used to set all blurs in the loop to be the same size at once.

This is a before and after of two different kinds of Reaction Diffusion with different inputs:

#### The Mandelbrot Set

The Mandelbrot set is an amazing set of numbers. The trick is to iterate an Expression node as often as possible over the same pixels.

This iteration process is where SetLoop comes in handy.

First, let's get a good understanding of the mathematics behind a Mandelbrot set. After that, we'll look at how to integrate that in Nuke.

The Mandelbrot set uses complex numbers. Complex numbers can be seen as numbers that are in a two-dimensional number system, like coordinates. They consist of a real number (a) and a complex number (b), and are then noted as a + bi.

The horizontal axis on this coordinate plane is where the real, 'normal' numbers (1, 2, 3) are. The vertical axis shows the 'extra dimension' of complex numbers that can be added.

The three example coordinates P_1(-2,-2i), P_2(1,-1.2i) and P_3(2,2i) are highlighted:

The i is a symbol telling us that the second number is a complex number, but it is also a number itself: i = \sqrt{-1} (and thus i^2 = -1).

This wouldn't be possible using only real numbers. Khan Academy has some cool visualisations of complex numbers and their behaviour, which also show the importance of visualizing them on a coordinate plane.

Now, what exactly is the Mandelbrot set?

Let's take the coordinate system of the real and complex numbers as an image with coordinates (x, y) to draw on.

The basis of the Mandelbrot is this very short equation:

Z_n = Z_{n-1}^2 + C

Z = a complex number, initially equal to C

C = a complex number and constant

As you can tell from the Z repeating itself, this is just one iteration. After this is calculated many times, the result can be measured to be smaller or bigger than 2 (to check if it has 'blown up' or not).

Make the values that are bigger than 2 a different color from the ones that aren't, and you'll have a Mandelbrot set.

Why 2?

Addition and multiplication with complex numbers is following the standard arithmetic rules, but the format in which they're written ((a + bi) - or, since we're using them in a coordinate system: (x + yi)) should be maintained:

Addition:

(x_1 + y_1i) + (x_2 + y_2i)

= x_1 + x_2 + y_1i + y_2i

= (x_1 + x_2) + (y_1 + y_2)i

Multiplication:

(x_1 + y_1i) * (x_2 + y_2i)

= x_1x_2 + y_1x_2i + x_1y_2i + y_1y_2i^2

= (x_1x_2 - y_1y_2) + (x_2y_1i + x_1y_2i)

= (x_1x_2 - y_1y_2) + (x_1y_2 + x_2y_1)i

Let's plug our x + yi in the equation of Z (where C = x_0 + y_0i, as this constant is the first value):

Z = (x + yi)^2 + (x_0 + y_0i)

= (x + yi)(x + yi) + (x_0 + y_0i)

= (x^2 - y^2) + (2xy) + (x_0 + y_0i)

= (x^2 - y^2 + x_0) + (2xy + y_0i)

Let's split this result in two - the real, and the complex part:

(x^2 - y^2 + x_0) and (2xy + y_0i)

This explains why Z cannot exceed 2. Let's have C = -2, to simulate what happens if Z = 2:

Z_n = Z_{n-1}^2 + -2:

Z_{(0)} = 0 *(first iteration)*

Z_{(1)} = 0^2 + -2 = -2

Z_{(2)} = -2^2 + -2 = 2

Z_{(\infty)} = 2^2 + -2 = 2

This will stay at 2 forever. Only if Z^2 > 4, Z will approach infinity.

After many iterations, Z = \sqrt{4} = 2 will be unlikely, except if it is in the Mandelbrot Set.

Now we have the equations for both the real and the complex part, we can finally throw this stuff in Nuke.

Let's start by recreating the coordinate system (-3 to 3 in both directions).

The red channel will represent all the real numbers, while the green channel represents the complex numbers.

Add an Expression node that does this:

Add a MergeExpression after that, with both A and B connected to Expression1, which makes the first iteration of the Mandelbrot.

It begins with a variable checking whether\sqrt{Br^2 + Bg^2} < 2.

Then, if that variable ('valid', I called it in the expression) is true, switch x, y with Br, Bg (red and green from input B) in the first part (the 'real numbers'-part) of Z, and set the new red value:

Br * Br - Bg * Bg + Ar

Ar is the 'original' red from input A, which won't be the same after multiple iterations.

If valid is not true, do not change it, but leave it at Br.

To recap: we're basically using (x^2 - y^2 + x_0) (from a few steps earlier, function Z) in Nuke now!

For the green channel we're doing the same, except this is the complex part of Z, so it will be:

Br * Bg * 2 + Ag

(Except if valid is false, in which case we won't change green at all)

One final adjustment: we also want to know how many iterations it took to calculate whether or not a pixel is inside the Mandelbrot. Let's add that to the alpha, by adding 1 every time valid is true and leaving it when valid isn't true.

This is what that would look like:

We're done! This is a visualized Mandelbrot set. Now we just needs to loop this a hundredth times. Let's make that happen using SetLoop, as I'm not feeling like ctrl+V'ing that.

Add SetLoop to the comp, move the MergeExpression to the middle of SetLoop, but make sure input A of MergeExpression1 is connected to the original Expression node (we want A to be the original value!) - and don't forget to make sure 'relink ext inputs' in Loop_End is enabled, as this makes sure that the MergeExpression can find Expression1 from inside the loop. Set the amount of loops to 100, and when the comp looks like this, click 'set':

You will have to wait the first calculation out. This might take some time, but once it's done you can scroll through it pretty smoothly!

You'll see an extra input in Loop_End was created, to connect the nodes inside the loop.

The RGB result is on the left, and on the right is the alpha divided by Loop_End.loops (since we made it add 1 to the alpha per iteration, it should be normalized to the amount of loops to make that visible in a render):

The STMap-node (set to Alpha) can be used to give this Mandelbrot some nice colors, and by multiplying or adding to the width and height in Expression1 the Mandelbrot can be translated and zoomed in on.

Download the example scripts I created down below!